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Name 16th century AD

Associated Records

Image of 2003.14.2 - Durer, Albrecht

2003.14.2 - Durer, Albrecht

The Flagellation (B33) by Albrecht Durer (German printmaker and painter, 1471-1528), signed in the block; from the Small Passion, edition 1511 with Latin text. This woodcut is a print from Dürer’s series known as the “Small Passion,” an illustrated narrative of the passion of Christ told in 36 prints. It depicts the moment where Christ is physically scourged. In this particular image, Christ appears to be reserved and tolerant of the brutality with which he is faced. This particular series was created prior to the Protestant Reformation, but many Reformation ideologies are already present here, especially the preference for religious storytelling Dürer is rightly heralded for his remarkab

Image of 2004.8.1 - Durer, Albrecht

2004.8.1 - Durer, Albrecht

Christ Nailed to the Cross (B39) by Albrecht Durer (German printmaker and painter, 1471-1528), signed in the block; from the Small Passion, edition 1511 with Latin text. This signed print is one of 36 from the series known as the “Small Passion.” Out of all of Dürer’s series, the “Small Passion” is the largest and one of his most popular. Dürer began the series sometime in 1508 or 1509, completed it in 1510, and published it in 1511 with Latin verses by Benedictus Chelidonius facing each plate. Between 1506 and 1512 Dürer devoted himself to the study of the human form. In tackling this problem, he drew upon the resources of arithmetic and geometry, reflecting the rigorous scientific obse

Image of 57.4 - Grimmer, Abel

57.4 - Grimmer, Abel

This small landscape painting by Abel Grimmer titled "Autumn Scene," is characteristic of his style. He specialized in small landscapes, often roundels that are dotted with figures passing through villages or open countryside. Many of these scenes also contain biblical themes. Grimmer often created his paintings in series, usually the seasons or months of the year. The I. R. R. study of this painting confirmed that it could be part of such series. (See notes). Grimmer was largely a derivative artist who based many of his works on prints after compositions by Pieter Bruegel the Elder (c. 1525-1569) and Hans Bol (1534-1593).

Image of 58.23 - Mor, Antonis

58.23 - Mor, Antonis

Though portrait painting can trace its roots back to antiquity, Antonis Mor's (North Netherlandish painter, born 1512-1516, died ca. 1576) portrait of Charles shows the royal patronage to which artists attached themselves, rather than continuing to work in the guild system. Mor's success as an artist was analogous to his rise in society, and being more socially prominent than his Netherlandish contemporaries, he enjoyed patronage that allowed him access to the political world. His master, Jan van Scorel (1495-1562), had nurtured much of Mor's success, including his knowledge of classical antiquity and associations with royalty and high clergy. Rivaled in skill by Titian at the time (ca. 1488-

Image of 58.16 - Bernini, Gian Lorenzo

58.16 - Bernini, Gian Lorenzo

The revival of the classical tradition of the independent portrait bust was one of the more noteworthy accomplishments of Italian Renaissance art. Unlike the typical ancient Roman bust, an idealized, abstract form that is envisioned only from the front and set apart by a supporting base, Renaissance busts are merely a fragment, which can evoke both physical and mental characteristics of a whole person for the viewer. In addition, this bust, with the head turned slightly to the right and tilted to the left, and the left shoulder higher than the right, differs from the stiffer forms seen in classical busts. Renaissance artists allowed for the illusion of mobility and movement in portrait busts.

Image of 58.35 - N/A

58.35 - N/A

Decorated with all-over geometric designs in green, red, and blue on a white ground, this pitcher has a bulbous body, narrow neck, and curved handle. This pitcher is an example of "Kütahya ware," an important pottery center of Turkey. It borrows the form of a "Rhodian" jug, so-called after the Greek city of Rhodes, the primary site of excavation of pitchers of this type. Safavid period, 1600-1699 AD

Image of 58.70 - Anonymous

58.70 - Anonymous

Pair of needlework panels framed together depicting a figure in a landscape with a city background and four men in a landscape, could be some unidentified narratives. 1533-1603 AD

Image of 59.128 -

59.128 -

Circular plaque or seal with a seated figure in a low relief, the figure sits on a chair with a high back and holds a stick or sword and is surrounded by scorpions and other animals/forms, the reverse is smooth, possibly East Christian or Byzantine. 500-1200 AD

Image of 59.134 -

59.134 -

This elaborately dressed male figure has been identified as a papal saint. He is in the midst of offering a blessing to his viewers, as is evident in the gesture of his right hand; his left would have most likely held a crosier or staff. The papal tiara he wears evolved from a pointed round cap in the 11th century to the ornate triple-crowned headpiece in the 16th century, with variations still being used by the papacy today. Spain had great interest in the artistic styles of Northern Europe, including the continuation of some medieval themes. Visual representations of saints both in painting and sculpture continued to be popular through the early modern period. 1500-1599 AD The continuit

Image of 59.177 - Beyer, M.

59.177 - Beyer, M.

Made in Augsburg, Germany, about the middle of the 17th century, this piece stands 2 feet high and is made from carved wood with silver inlaid details. It represents a peasant woman carrying a basket on her back. Her head is crowned with grapes and in the grapes are the grasshopper, a lizard and a bird eating a grape. She has big eyes and old face with wrinkles on her forehead and cheeks. She is dressed in traditional folk dress. In the middle ages rich farm women would wear gold coins on their costumes. The coins jingle when a woman walks warning everyone around that a prominent person is arriving. This peasant woman is wearing traditional dress with ruffled shirt and belt. Her skirt is gath

Image of 59.178 - Beyer, M.

59.178 - Beyer, M.

Figurine of a peasant holding a cane and sickle and bearing a basket on his back, mounted on silver gilt base with scroll design, signed inside base: "M. Beyer," artist worked in Augsburg. 1500-1699 AD

Image of 59.2 -

59.2 -

This bust-length figure crowned with laurel leaves, wearing a broadly-draped cape fastened over a square-necked tunic, appears to be a 1500-1599 AD man in the guise of a Roman emperor. However, this facial type, with thick eyebrows and brushy moustache, does not resemble any known antique emperor type. It is nevertheless based upon the late Hellenistic and Roman belief in survival after death, and that the face was the vestige of the mortal being who either earned or lost a blissful hereafter. Its visual sources are late Roman: 2nd-century C.E. male busts are shown with hair and beards that cascade with curls, as opposed to a century later, when the long, flowing curls vanish and the close-fi

Image of 60.2 - Severo da Ravenna

60.2 - Severo da Ravenna

Attributed to the workshop of the prominent Paduan sculptor Severo da Ravenna, this statuette shows a satyress sitting calmly on an antique-style tree stump, with one arm around the shoulders of a child satyr, and the other extended, probably once supporting the candleholder now bolted to the statuette's base. In the tradition of similar Renaissance bronzes, the group is elegantly and naturalistically modeled, with a typical interest in the careful and lifelike representation of bodily form. Like the statuette's naturalistic style, its subject would have been incongruous in the pre-Renaissance era. The satyress, like her male counterpart, the satyr, is a creature derived from classical myt

Image of 60.84 -

60.84 -

This Roman gladiator is a direct revival of classical antiquity based on a known source. This small bronze, as well as the other bronzes in the exhibition, helped Renaissance knowledge expand across the modern world, since art was dispersed throughout Europe. Also, like many bronzes, this object may have been made from a unique mold and thus never reproduced, unless the artist took a cast of the original. A humanist might have been the commissioner of this bronze, since such people were very interested in the revival of both classical texts and classical art. Unfortunately for us, the collectors of these bronzes did not feel it was important to record whether a bronze was an original, first c

Image of 60.86 -

60.86 -

This small Italian Renaissance bronze is also an example of the direct imitation of classical antiquity. The miniature statue is modeled after the famous, over life-size Hercules that the Farnese family dug up from the Baths of Caracalla in Rome in the 16th century. Much interest was aroused by that nearly ten-foot-high, highly-detailed statue. The Greek artist Glykon's signature is on the ancient statue, but scholars believe that he modeled it after a bronze attributed to Lysippos. The Farnese Hercules was immensely popular and attracted many visitors. Humanist scholars who read ancient texts and collected ancient artifacts were the most likely people to acquire such small bronze copies o

Image of 63.36 - Unknown

63.36 - Unknown

Engraving, copy made after Albrecht Durer's (1471-1528) "The Three Genii."

Image of 61.3 -

61.3 -

This ivory lion statuette, seated with all paws on the base, is convincingly depicted. The carver demonstrates the precision of his skill with stylized details, such as rendering the top of the lion’s tail and neck with parallel lines. There is also an added touch at the top of the lion’s head, where strands of curving hair break from the stylized pattern of the rest of the mane. These stylized motifs could demonstrate that this statuette is from India, since lions are important motifs in Buddhist sculpture and are portrayed as lifelike. Unfortunately, however, there is no indication whether it is a Buddhist or a secular lion. Ivory carvings produced during the Mughal period in India (1526

Image of 61.5 - Riccio, Andrea

61.5 - Riccio, Andrea

Formerly attributed to the workshop of the Italian sculptor Severo Calzetta da Ravenna, "Atlas Supporting an Oil Lamp" is a product of a bronze-casting technique that enabled the artist and his assistants to create more than one statuette from a given model. Set upon a square base, the titan is weighed down by an oil lamp, shaped like the globe of the heavens, resting upon his right shoulder. He supports himself with his left hand and turns his head towards the lamp, the hemispheric lid of which is lost. Most likely, a spout and a wick emerged through the missing cover. Atlas' upward-turned head conveys either anguish or anger, since he was condemned to the labor of bearing the heavens on his

Image of 61.52 - Lombardo, Girolamo (attributed)

61.52 - Lombardo, Girolamo (attributed)

The three figures of this terracotta bozzetto interact compositionally and psychologically. The fluid articulation of the masses of the Virgin's robe and the solid poses of the figures suggest that the artist was probably aware of trends in Roman sculpture in the early seventeenth century. The figures' faces are not the generalized types associated with late sixteenth-century Italian depictions. Rather, their specificity, the sweetness of expression, and the swept-back masses of drapery folds on the firmly modeled figure of the Virgin again point to early seventeenth-century sculpture in Rome. The name of the sculptor Girolamo Lombardi has been connected to this figine due to the initials in

Image of 62.28 -

62.28 -

The androgynous figure represented in this ivory panel stands within an archway, as if enshrined; surrounded by stylized plant forms. The contours of the body, carved in low relief, are suggested by decorative bands encircling the torso and arms. Folds of drapery are rendered by the schematic use of repeated parallel lines. The clothing, headgear and jewelry are typical of those seen in paintings and sculpture over many periods and regions in the complex of art styles known as Indian art. The art of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) is best viewed within this larger context, which is characterized by certain common conceptions and forms of design that originated in India and continued to develop in neig