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Image of 2011.72.2 - Zhukov, N.

2011.72.2 - Zhukov, N.

Lithograph poster in color with three portraits in front of textile patterns, text reads: "USSR COUNTRY OF 189 PEOPLES," printed in Russia 1934. Produced by Intourist, printed in the Soviet Union by Vneshtorgisdat, Moscow. Artists possibly N. Zhukov and S. Sakharov (Sacharov).

Image of 58.16 - Bernini, Gian Lorenzo

58.16 - Bernini, Gian Lorenzo

The revival of the classical tradition of the independent portrait bust was one of the more noteworthy accomplishments of Italian Renaissance art. Unlike the typical ancient Roman bust, an idealized, abstract form that is envisioned only from the front and set apart by a supporting base, Renaissance busts are merely a fragment, which can evoke both physical and mental characteristics of a whole person for the viewer. In addition, this bust, with the head turned slightly to the right and tilted to the left, and the left shoulder higher than the right, differs from the stiffer forms seen in classical busts. Renaissance artists allowed for the illusion of mobility and movement in portrait busts.

Image of 59.167 - Robbia, Andrea della

59.167 - Robbia, Andrea della

This large glazed terra cotta relief presents bust-length portraits of three holy figures: the Virgin Mary, Saint Francis, and John the Baptist. The two male figures are recognizable by Francis's tonsured hair, in which the center is shaved, and John the Baptist's hair shirt and cross-topped staff. 1460-1520 AD Renaissance innovations were caused not only by new ideologies like Protestantism. Developments in artistic media also occurred, as seen here in the use of glazed terra cotta or baked clay. As told by the 16th-century writer Giorgio Vasari, Luca della Robbia, Andrea's uncle, invented a new tin-based glazing technique that would allow the terra cotta to be extremely durable, even wh

Image of 59.2 -

59.2 -

This bust-length figure crowned with laurel leaves, wearing a broadly-draped cape fastened over a square-necked tunic, appears to be a 1500-1599 AD man in the guise of a Roman emperor. However, this facial type, with thick eyebrows and brushy moustache, does not resemble any known antique emperor type. It is nevertheless based upon the late Hellenistic and Roman belief in survival after death, and that the face was the vestige of the mortal being who either earned or lost a blissful hereafter. Its visual sources are late Roman: 2nd-century C.E. male busts are shown with hair and beards that cascade with curls, as opposed to a century later, when the long, flowing curls vanish and the close-fi

Image of 60.2 - Severo da Ravenna

60.2 - Severo da Ravenna

Attributed to the workshop of the prominent Paduan sculptor Severo da Ravenna, this statuette shows a satyress sitting calmly on an antique-style tree stump, with one arm around the shoulders of a child satyr, and the other extended, probably once supporting the candleholder now bolted to the statuette's base. In the tradition of similar Renaissance bronzes, the group is elegantly and naturalistically modeled, with a typical interest in the careful and lifelike representation of bodily form. Like the statuette's naturalistic style, its subject would have been incongruous in the pre-Renaissance era. The satyress, like her male counterpart, the satyr, is a creature derived from classical myt

Image of 60.83 - Algardi, Alessandro (Follower of)

60.83 - Algardi, Alessandro (Follower of)

Created by a follower of the high-Baroque sculptor Algardi, the sculpture depicts the Flagellation scene in which Christ is tied to a column and whipped before his Crucifixion. With the ever-growing presence of the Protestant movement, Catholic Church officials tried to fight what they saw as heresy by using visual representation as a form of education for the masses. In order to ensure universal comprehension, art was to be devoid of any extraneous detail that might lead the viewer astray from the intended religious teaching, and thus become himself become a heretic himself. Our sculpture of Christ, now placed alone in the facsimile of a wooden interior of a church, still retains the Coun

Image of 60.84 -

60.84 -

This Roman gladiator is a direct revival of classical antiquity based on a known source. This small bronze, as well as the other bronzes in the exhibition, helped Renaissance knowledge expand across the modern world, since art was dispersed throughout Europe. Also, like many bronzes, this object may have been made from a unique mold and thus never reproduced, unless the artist took a cast of the original. A humanist might have been the commissioner of this bronze, since such people were very interested in the revival of both classical texts and classical art. Unfortunately for us, the collectors of these bronzes did not feel it was important to record whether a bronze was an original, first c

Image of 60.86 -

60.86 -

This small Italian Renaissance bronze is also an example of the direct imitation of classical antiquity. The miniature statue is modeled after the famous, over life-size Hercules that the Farnese family dug up from the Baths of Caracalla in Rome in the 16th century. Much interest was aroused by that nearly ten-foot-high, highly-detailed statue. The Greek artist Glykon's signature is on the ancient statue, but scholars believe that he modeled it after a bronze attributed to Lysippos. The Farnese Hercules was immensely popular and attracted many visitors. Humanist scholars who read ancient texts and collected ancient artifacts were the most likely people to acquire such small bronze copies o

Image of 61.5 - Riccio, Andrea

61.5 - Riccio, Andrea

Formerly attributed to the workshop of the Italian sculptor Severo Calzetta da Ravenna, "Atlas Supporting an Oil Lamp" is a product of a bronze-casting technique that enabled the artist and his assistants to create more than one statuette from a given model. Set upon a square base, the titan is weighed down by an oil lamp, shaped like the globe of the heavens, resting upon his right shoulder. He supports himself with his left hand and turns his head towards the lamp, the hemispheric lid of which is lost. Most likely, a spout and a wick emerged through the missing cover. Atlas' upward-turned head conveys either anguish or anger, since he was condemned to the labor of bearing the heavens on his

Image of 61.52 - Lombardo, Girolamo (attributed)

61.52 - Lombardo, Girolamo (attributed)

The three figures of this terracotta bozzetto interact compositionally and psychologically. The fluid articulation of the masses of the Virgin's robe and the solid poses of the figures suggest that the artist was probably aware of trends in Roman sculpture in the early seventeenth century. The figures' faces are not the generalized types associated with late sixteenth-century Italian depictions. Rather, their specificity, the sweetness of expression, and the swept-back masses of drapery folds on the firmly modeled figure of the Virgin again point to early seventeenth-century sculpture in Rome. The name of the sculptor Girolamo Lombardi has been connected to this figine due to the initials in

Image of 62.44 -

62.44 -

Relics were housed in containers known as reliquaries, which often took the shape of the body part of the relic. A bone from a finger might be housed in a hand-shaped reliquary, while a skull might be encased in one resembling the head or bust of the deceased person. These were called "speaking image" reliquaries, because they stood in for or "spoke" for the body part they resembled. This example is in the shape of an arm, a rather widespread form in late medieval and early Renaissance times, examples of which have been recovered in places as distant as modern-day Armenia and Ireland. Because a reliquary was thought to retain the power and holiness of the saintly person, clergy used arm reliq

Image of 62.44 -

62.44 -

Relics were housed in containers known as reliquaries, which often took the shape of the body part of the relic. A bone from a finger might be housed in a hand-shaped reliquary, while a skull might be encased in one resembling the head or bust of the deceased person. These were called "speaking image" reliquaries, because they stood in for or "spoke" for the body part they resembled. This example is in the shape of an arm, a rather widespread form in late medieval and early Renaissance times, examples of which have been recovered in places as distant as modern-day Armenia and Ireland. Because a reliquary was thought to retain the power and holiness of the saintly person, clergy used arm reliq

Image of 63.54 - Zanetti, Antonio Maria

63.54 - Zanetti, Antonio Maria

There are two Antonio Maria Zanetti's known to art historians: Zanetti the Younger and Zanetti the Elder. There is little scholarship about these two different artists, but one can see their differences in style. A print identical to this drawing was signed by Zanetti the Elder and dated 1723. This drawing may thus have been by the artist himself, though it could also be a copy or a sketch by a student or follower. Antonio Maria Zanetti the Elder was born in Venice in 1680 and was a collector of art as well as a writer and an artist himself; his date of death is unsure. Some believe he died in 1757, but others say he could have lived until 1765. He traveled throughout Europe, had an exten

Image of 64.30 - Severo da Ravenna

64.30 - Severo da Ravenna

The statuette shows a satyress, a mythological being who combines the characteristics of a human and a goat, seated in a frontal pose on a wooden base that has lost part of its molding. One of her hands is extended, holding what might once have been a candlestick, while the other is bent awkwardly at her side. The work is in good condition, but seems unfinished, with slightly uncontrolled modeling and a lack of fine detail. Its composition is remarkably similar to that of another small bronze satyress, in the collection of the Museo di Palazzo Venezia, which has been attributed to the workshop of the Paduan artist Severo da Ravenna, and also to that of catalogue in this exhibition, a Seate

Image of 66.49 - Dughet, Gaspard

66.49 - Dughet, Gaspard

This painting was formerly attributed to Charles Mellin, a French-born painter and draftsman who lived and worked in Italy, primarily Rome, from 1620 onward. Based on reevaluation of archival papers and the painting itself, this work seems more likely to have been painted by Gaspard Dughet, a student of Nicholas Poussin, court painter to Louis XIII. Dughet, who became Poussin's brother-in-law, was one of the best known landscape painters of 17th-century Rome. Although celebrated as a landscape artist, Dughet's figures were often executed by other painters-possibly, in this work, by Carlo Maratti with whom he worked on several paintings. Dughet's style was influenced by the work of Salvator

Image of 66.8 - Du Quesnoy, Francois

66.8 - Du Quesnoy, Francois

Oval terracotta relief plaque with representation of the Christ Child sleeping on a cloud, naked, holding what appears to be a book at his right side, attributed to Francois du Quesnoy (1594-1643), or his workshop, dated to c. 1618. A work of this kind is probably a "bozzetto," a preparatory sketch or model for a work in a more permanent material. This work is attributed to the Flemish sculptor, Fran├žois Du Quesnoy, born in Brussels. He studied in Rome where the documents name him Francesco or France, and he also worked for the great master, Gian Lorenzo Bernini in rome. Duquesnoy's style is characterized by sweetness and naturalism, qualities of liveliness and subtle modeling. However, t

Image of 67.152 - Chirico, Giorgio de

67.152 - Chirico, Giorgio de

Return of the Prodigal Son I [Il ritorno del figliol prodigo I] from Metamorphosis series, 1929, colored lithograph by Giorgio de Chirico (Italian painter, writer, and scenographer, 1888-1978), numbered 15/100.

Image of 68.8.9 - Piranesi, Giovanni Battista

68.8.9 - Piranesi, Giovanni Battista

Etching titled "Demostrazioni dell'Emissario del Lago Albano," by Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1720-1778).

Image of 73.30 - Chirico, Giorgio de

73.30 - Chirico, Giorgio de

Color lithograph titled "Gladiator" from Metamorphosis series by Giorgio de Chirico (Italian painter, writer, and scenographer, 1888-1978); signed in pencil and numbered 15/100.

Image of 69.17 -

69.17 -

The same innovations which led the Renaissance into the modern world, are characteristic of this bronze as well. The centaur is a classical figure that humanists would have known, since they were well-versed in classical culture. Its patron was probably a person with a classical education. In the ancient world, centaurs represented barbarian forces, as seen on the sculpted metopes of the Parthenon that symbolically represented the battle of the Persians and the Greeks. We cannot say whether the artist or patron intended this centaur to symbolize the barbaric foreigners of their own time, or simply valued it as a generically classical allusion. Lauren Williams, in "SCHOLARS, EXPLORERS, PRIEST