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Image of 2003.4.69 - Unknown artist, Cuzco School of Painting

2003.4.69 - Unknown artist, Cuzco School of Painting

In pre-Hispanic Andean societies, women were the keepers of religious organizations dedicated to female deities conceptualized as the forces of procreation and regeneration. Not surprisingly, after the Spanish conquest, Indian converts venerated the image of the Virgin Mary as their patroness, endowing her with miraculous powers, for she was easily identified with Pachamama, the Inca earth-mother goddess, impregnated by the Sun god Inti, who aids and sustains humanity. Thus, the most abundant subject of the Cuzco School is the Virgin, who was venerated in many cults. "The Madonna and Christ Child Reading a Book" is an example of the expressive, "naive" style found in Cuzqueno paintings. T

Image of 2003.4.70 - Unknown artist, Cuzco School of Painting

2003.4.70 - Unknown artist, Cuzco School of Painting

This painting of the "Madonna and Child" is a delicate work that showcases the synthesis of European iconography and Andean styles found in the Cuzco School. The lavish piece was probably modeled after works such as the "Madonna and Child" which presents these heavenly personages in a manner that follows the traditional depiction of Mary as the "Good Mother." Also typical of European iconography are the grapes to which the Christ Child points, which not only refer to the Eucharist, but may also relate to another plant--based motif the personification of Mary as the "true vine" found in both Isaiah and Genesis-with Christ symbolizing the ripening fruit. Following Cuzqueno traditions, the Vi

Image of 57.1 - Rubens, Peter Paul

57.1 - Rubens, Peter Paul

During the 16th century Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, was pivotal for the appreciation and dissemination of art from Flanders, where he was born, to Spain, where he ruled as King Charles I. Consequently, Flemish prints and paintings were exported to the Spanish empire in the Americas during the age of exploration (c. 1400-1600). The art of the Baroque master Peter Paul Rubens, in particular, may be the most significant Flemish influence in the development of Andean painting during the colonial period, with many of the artist's works already distributed to the New World during his lifetime. Paintings like the Madonna and Child became essential compositional aids for Andean artists in Cuzco an

Image of 57.2 - Froment, Nicholas

57.2 - Froment, Nicholas

Froment, along with Enguerrand Quarton, was responsible for introducing Flemish naturalism into French art. Froment is known for his often subdued color, awkward designs, and rough style. His "Lamentation" clearly uses Flemish models, such as the sparse rural background and the depiction of clothing with typically Flemish, sharp drapery folds. Froment paints an emaciated Christ who contrasts with the stocky figures gathered closely together in two separate groups. The Virgin Mary kneels over to hold the body of her dead son while Mary Magdalene grieves at Jesus' feet; a bearded male figure, either Joseph of Arimathea or Nicodemus, stands solemnly in the background looking down at the lifel

Image of 59.134 -

59.134 -

This elaborately dressed male figure has been identified as a papal saint. He is in the midst of offering a blessing to his viewers, as is evident in the gesture of his right hand; his left would have most likely held a crosier or staff. The papal tiara he wears evolved from a pointed round cap in the 11th century to the ornate triple-crowned headpiece in the 16th century, with variations still being used by the papacy today. Spain had great interest in the artistic styles of Northern Europe, including the continuation of some medieval themes. Visual representations of saints both in painting and sculpture continued to be popular through the early modern period. 1500-1599 AD The continuit

Image of 59.167 - Robbia, Andrea della

59.167 - Robbia, Andrea della

This large glazed terra cotta relief presents bust-length portraits of three holy figures: the Virgin Mary, Saint Francis, and John the Baptist. The two male figures are recognizable by Francis's tonsured hair, in which the center is shaved, and John the Baptist's hair shirt and cross-topped staff. 1460-1520 AD Renaissance innovations were caused not only by new ideologies like Protestantism. Developments in artistic media also occurred, as seen here in the use of glazed terra cotta or baked clay. As told by the 16th-century writer Giorgio Vasari, Luca della Robbia, Andrea's uncle, invented a new tin-based glazing technique that would allow the terra cotta to be extremely durable, even wh

Image of 60.40 - Poorter, Willem de

60.40 - Poorter, Willem de

Willem de Poorter, a Dutch follower of Rembrandt, depicts Mary Magdalene, 1630-1639 as an image of feminine beauty, with delicate facial features and a sensuous body. She wears a silky red gown as a symbol of passion, sinfulness, and vanity, as well as suffering. In a moment of spiritual struggle and intense devotion, she turns her head toward Heaven showing remorse for her sins with her clasped hands, the redness of her eyes, and the pearl-like tears that roll down her face. She has thrown onto the floor her luxurious accessories, gold coins, and jars of unguent, used both to perfume her flesh for forbidden acts and to cleanse Christ's feet. Without fear, she has rejected the pleasures of ea

Image of 60.83 - Algardi, Alessandro (Follower of)

60.83 - Algardi, Alessandro (Follower of)

Created by a follower of the high-Baroque sculptor Algardi, the sculpture depicts the Flagellation scene in which Christ is tied to a column and whipped before his Crucifixion. With the ever-growing presence of the Protestant movement, Catholic Church officials tried to fight what they saw as heresy by using visual representation as a form of education for the masses. In order to ensure universal comprehension, art was to be devoid of any extraneous detail that might lead the viewer astray from the intended religious teaching, and thus become himself become a heretic himself. Our sculpture of Christ, now placed alone in the facsimile of a wooden interior of a church, still retains the Coun

Image of 61.52 - Lombardo, Girolamo (attributed)

61.52 - Lombardo, Girolamo (attributed)

The three figures of this terracotta bozzetto interact compositionally and psychologically. The fluid articulation of the masses of the Virgin's robe and the solid poses of the figures suggest that the artist was probably aware of trends in Roman sculpture in the early seventeenth century. The figures' faces are not the generalized types associated with late sixteenth-century Italian depictions. Rather, their specificity, the sweetness of expression, and the swept-back masses of drapery folds on the firmly modeled figure of the Virgin again point to early seventeenth-century sculpture in Rome. The name of the sculptor Girolamo Lombardi has been connected to this figine due to the initials in

Image of 62.24 - Rembrandt van Rijn

62.24 - Rembrandt van Rijn

Pen and bister drawing depicting Christ praying on the Mount of Olives, attributed to Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch painter, draftsman, and printmaker, 1606-1669).

Image of 64.20 -

64.20 -

Private devotional shrine composed of six grisaille enamel panels forming a triptych; the central panel shows The Pieta; above this central rectangular panel hovers the figure of God the Father in a lunette; flanking panels each show a Prophet standing in a niche composed of a lobed base and baldachino; above the Prophets are angels with instuments of Christ's Passion, and the Prophets carry inscribed scrolls: on the left, "sol et Luna obt enebrti Sunt Venite et Descendie" [Joel 2], on the right, "Tollite me et mitte in Mare" [Jonas 2]; presumably the Prophets' drapery is rendered in a deliberate archaic style, to indicate that they come from a time before the central scene [NAW 1/92] Judg

Image of 66.8 - Du Quesnoy, Francois

66.8 - Du Quesnoy, Francois

Oval terracotta relief plaque with representation of the Christ Child sleeping on a cloud, naked, holding what appears to be a book at his right side, attributed to Francois du Quesnoy (1594-1643), or his workshop, dated to c. 1618. A work of this kind is probably a "bozzetto," a preparatory sketch or model for a work in a more permanent material. This work is attributed to the Flemish sculptor, François Du Quesnoy, born in Brussels. He studied in Rome where the documents name him Francesco or France, and he also worked for the great master, Gian Lorenzo Bernini in rome. Duquesnoy's style is characterized by sweetness and naturalism, qualities of liveliness and subtle modeling. However, t

Image of 73.29 - Rembrandt van Rijn

73.29 - Rembrandt van Rijn

Etching titled the "Raising of Lazarus" by Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669). The Raising of Lazarus is one of Rembrandt’s many biblical etchings. Typical of postReformation imagery, the print stresses Biblical narrative. Instead of an image of Christ as an icon capable of miracles, the work demonstrates a story from the Bible, wherein Jesus brings Lazarus, brother of Martha and Mary Magdalene, back to life four days after his death. As opposed to being displayed using the symbols and icons worshipped by the Catholics, this more Protestant take on the story focuses on an actual moment of action, conveying the teachings of the Bible rather than idol worship. Anthony Biondolillo in "Re-Formi

Image of 88.1.19 - N/A

88.1.19 - N/A

Figurine of Mary Magdalene at the Foot of Christ's Cross. She is depicted kneeling and embracing the base of the cross. Section from an alterpiece of the Passion, probably the central Crucifixion scene. Representations of Mary Magdalene most often picture her as a prostitute and adulteress. With images of her long hair flowing down her shoulders, she stands for sin, warning viewers not to follow in her path. In this delicate wooden sculpture, however, Mary Magdalene has no such characteristics. Her headdress is carved with delicate patterned details and her clothing is captured with softness and grace. While she proffers her hands and head to signal her surrender of love for Jesus Christ,

Image of P151 - Durer, Albrecht

P151 - Durer, Albrecht

"Madonna by the Wall", made in 1514, is quite different from the earlier "Virgin and Child with Monkey" (P149). The effect of the deep black lines, which create a more even-tempered, silvery matte texture, is almost tragic-perhaps a result of the death of Durer's mother, on May 14th, 1514. His rapid mastery of the medium of engraving can be followed year by year, with every new print by the artist. Peter Leeds, in "SCHOLARS, EXPLORERS, PRIESTS, How the Renaissance Gave Us the Modern World," ex. cat. G -T M, Queens College, CUNY, February 2 - March 27, 2010, 66. Whereas the "Virgin and Child with Monkey" is largely black and white in tone, the "Madonna by the Wall" shows a unique variety of

Image of P149 - Durer, Albrecht

P149 - Durer, Albrecht

This engraving, produced between 1496 and 1502, shows the young Durer's advanced skill in using the burin technique. The group of the Virgin and Child was a common medieval theme, which over the years became a frequent outlet for Durer to show his improving skills and his new interest in the structural forms visible in Italian art. His precise line and sensitive modeling became more and more detailed. This is a remarkably clear presentation of a draped figure in a deep landscape. The hatched lines in the dress and mantle of Mary are curved to follow the contours of the drapery. The knees of the Virgin are brightly highlighted and delicate turns in drapery folds are modulated in subtle tonalit

Image of P103 - Tiepolo, Giovanni Domenico

P103 - Tiepolo, Giovanni Domenico

"Virgin with Sts. Anthony Abbot and George," demonstrates the distinctive style of Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo's reproductive prints. The print shows greater linear density and a relatively discrete use of a wide range of marks to create effects.For example, the robe of the kneeling saint is a broad swatch of white with shadow articulated by curving lines fading to dots, while the column behind has all small lines at random angles reproducing marble. In neither form is the same means used.

Image of P157 - Schongauer, Martin

P157 - Schongauer, Martin

One of Martin Schongauer's (ca. 1430-1491) earliest and most sought-after engravings, "The Flight into Egypt" is one of two that belong to the "Sorrows of the Virgin" (from his series on the Life of the Virgin). Here the Virgin and Child sit astride a small donkey, beneath bowed date-palm branches. Angels ensconced in the tree bend the boughs down, helping Joseph to gather the fruit. The two tropical trees, imaginatively depicted in the scene and not native species north of the Pyrenees, Schongau Pyrenees, were unfamiliar to Schongauer's audience in the Rhine Valley. Perhaps this exoticism, and the intimate, miraculous nature of the scene, initiated the enormous popularity of this print.

Image of P158 - Schongauer, Martin

P158 - Schongauer, Martin

The second of Martin Schongauer's (ca. 1430-1491) engravings belonging to the traditional cycle of the "Sorrows of the Virgin" (from his Life of the Virgin series), "Death of the Virgin" was very popular and endlessly copied in his own time. It was common for engraved copper plates to be re-cut once they were exhausted, often by copyists who applied their own monograms and claimed the imagery as their own. We have yet to determine the period of this facsimile of one of Schongauer's most admired and influential engravings. This print was considered particularly daring because it broke the German art tradition in of depicting the Virgin on her deathbed viewed from the side, with the Apostle

Image of P58 - Reni, Guido

P58 - Reni, Guido

Among the most beautiful of Guido Reni's etchings "The Holy Family" demonstrates both his debt and independence from the sixteenth-century printer and etcher Parmigianino. Like Parmigianino, Reni used a very sketchy etching technique, but with reinforcement (perhaps in drypoint) in dark areas. This is the most noticeable in the body of the Virgin, where the shadows of the folds of drapery are deeply etched lines that both define the breasts and give them weight. he interest in Parmigianino's etching technique is matched by adaptation of his figure types, like St. Joseph with his swirling hair and beard. But the Virgin lacks all the eccentric phisiognomic aspects of Parmigianino's; her propor