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Name Renaissance

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Image of 57.2 - Froment, Nicholas

57.2 - Froment, Nicholas

Froment, along with Enguerrand Quarton, was responsible for introducing Flemish naturalism into French art. Froment is known for his often subdued color, awkward designs, and rough style. His "Lamentation" clearly uses Flemish models, such as the sparse rural background and the depiction of clothing with typically Flemish, sharp drapery folds. Froment paints an emaciated Christ who contrasts with the stocky figures gathered closely together in two separate groups. The Virgin Mary kneels over to hold the body of her dead son while Mary Magdalene grieves at Jesus' feet; a bearded male figure, either Joseph of Arimathea or Nicodemus, stands solemnly in the background looking down at the lifel

Image of 65.5 - N/A

65.5 - N/A

Panel painting of St. John the Evangelist's marthyrdom by being boiled alive in oil by the Roman Emperor Domitian, John is depicted as a half nude figure issuing from a large cauldron while a solgier pours oil over him and another works the bellows by the fire; the Emperor looks on from behind John.

Image of 58.23 - Mor, Antonis

58.23 - Mor, Antonis

Though portrait painting can trace its roots back to antiquity, Antonis Mor's (North Netherlandish painter, born 1512-1516, died ca. 1576) portrait of Charles shows the royal patronage to which artists attached themselves, rather than continuing to work in the guild system. Mor's success as an artist was analogous to his rise in society, and being more socially prominent than his Netherlandish contemporaries, he enjoyed patronage that allowed him access to the political world. His master, Jan van Scorel (1495-1562), had nurtured much of Mor's success, including his knowledge of classical antiquity and associations with royalty and high clergy. Rivaled in skill by Titian at the time (ca. 1488-

Image of 58.70 - Anonymous

58.70 - Anonymous

Pair of needlework panels framed together depicting a figure in a landscape with a city background and four men in a landscape, could be some unidentified narratives. 1533-1603 AD

Image of 59.134 -

59.134 -

This elaborately dressed male figure has been identified as a papal saint. He is in the midst of offering a blessing to his viewers, as is evident in the gesture of his right hand; his left would have most likely held a crosier or staff. The papal tiara he wears evolved from a pointed round cap in the 11th century to the ornate triple-crowned headpiece in the 16th century, with variations still being used by the papacy today. Spain had great interest in the artistic styles of Northern Europe, including the continuation of some medieval themes. Visual representations of saints both in painting and sculpture continued to be popular through the early modern period. 1500-1599 AD The continuit

Image of 59.167 - Robbia, Andrea della

59.167 - Robbia, Andrea della

This large glazed terra cotta relief presents bust-length portraits of three holy figures: the Virgin Mary, Saint Francis, and John the Baptist. The two male figures are recognizable by Francis's tonsured hair, in which the center is shaved, and John the Baptist's hair shirt and cross-topped staff. 1460-1520 AD Renaissance innovations were caused not only by new ideologies like Protestantism. Developments in artistic media also occurred, as seen here in the use of glazed terra cotta or baked clay. As told by the 16th-century writer Giorgio Vasari, Luca della Robbia, Andrea's uncle, invented a new tin-based glazing technique that would allow the terra cotta to be extremely durable, even wh

Image of 59.177 - Beyer, M.

59.177 - Beyer, M.

Made in Augsburg, Germany, about the middle of the 17th century, this piece stands 2 feet high and is made from carved wood with silver inlaid details. It represents a peasant woman carrying a basket on her back. Her head is crowned with grapes and in the grapes are the grasshopper, a lizard and a bird eating a grape. She has big eyes and old face with wrinkles on her forehead and cheeks. She is dressed in traditional folk dress. In the middle ages rich farm women would wear gold coins on their costumes. The coins jingle when a woman walks warning everyone around that a prominent person is arriving. This peasant woman is wearing traditional dress with ruffled shirt and belt. Her skirt is gath

Image of 59.178 - Beyer, M.

59.178 - Beyer, M.

Figurine of a peasant holding a cane and sickle and bearing a basket on his back, mounted on silver gilt base with scroll design, signed inside base: "M. Beyer," artist worked in Augsburg. 1500-1699 AD

Image of 59.2 -

59.2 -

This bust-length figure crowned with laurel leaves, wearing a broadly-draped cape fastened over a square-necked tunic, appears to be a 1500-1599 AD man in the guise of a Roman emperor. However, this facial type, with thick eyebrows and brushy moustache, does not resemble any known antique emperor type. It is nevertheless based upon the late Hellenistic and Roman belief in survival after death, and that the face was the vestige of the mortal being who either earned or lost a blissful hereafter. Its visual sources are late Roman: 2nd-century C.E. male busts are shown with hair and beards that cascade with curls, as opposed to a century later, when the long, flowing curls vanish and the close-fi

Image of 60.2 - Severo da Ravenna

60.2 - Severo da Ravenna

Attributed to the workshop of the prominent Paduan sculptor Severo da Ravenna, this statuette shows a satyress sitting calmly on an antique-style tree stump, with one arm around the shoulders of a child satyr, and the other extended, probably once supporting the candleholder now bolted to the statuette's base. In the tradition of similar Renaissance bronzes, the group is elegantly and naturalistically modeled, with a typical interest in the careful and lifelike representation of bodily form. Like the statuette's naturalistic style, its subject would have been incongruous in the pre-Renaissance era. The satyress, like her male counterpart, the satyr, is a creature derived from classical myt

Image of 60.84 -

60.84 -

This Roman gladiator is a direct revival of classical antiquity based on a known source. This small bronze, as well as the other bronzes in the exhibition, helped Renaissance knowledge expand across the modern world, since art was dispersed throughout Europe. Also, like many bronzes, this object may have been made from a unique mold and thus never reproduced, unless the artist took a cast of the original. A humanist might have been the commissioner of this bronze, since such people were very interested in the revival of both classical texts and classical art. Unfortunately for us, the collectors of these bronzes did not feel it was important to record whether a bronze was an original, first c

Image of 60.86 -

60.86 -

This small Italian Renaissance bronze is also an example of the direct imitation of classical antiquity. The miniature statue is modeled after the famous, over life-size Hercules that the Farnese family dug up from the Baths of Caracalla in Rome in the 16th century. Much interest was aroused by that nearly ten-foot-high, highly-detailed statue. The Greek artist Glykon's signature is on the ancient statue, but scholars believe that he modeled it after a bronze attributed to Lysippos. The Farnese Hercules was immensely popular and attracted many visitors. Humanist scholars who read ancient texts and collected ancient artifacts were the most likely people to acquire such small bronze copies o

Image of 63.36 - Unknown

63.36 - Unknown

Engraving, copy made after Albrecht Durer's (1471-1528) "The Three Genii."

Image of 61.5 - Riccio, Andrea

61.5 - Riccio, Andrea

Formerly attributed to the workshop of the Italian sculptor Severo Calzetta da Ravenna, "Atlas Supporting an Oil Lamp" is a product of a bronze-casting technique that enabled the artist and his assistants to create more than one statuette from a given model. Set upon a square base, the titan is weighed down by an oil lamp, shaped like the globe of the heavens, resting upon his right shoulder. He supports himself with his left hand and turns his head towards the lamp, the hemispheric lid of which is lost. Most likely, a spout and a wick emerged through the missing cover. Atlas' upward-turned head conveys either anguish or anger, since he was condemned to the labor of bearing the heavens on his

Image of 61.52 - Lombardo, Girolamo (attributed)

61.52 - Lombardo, Girolamo (attributed)

The three figures of this terracotta bozzetto interact compositionally and psychologically. The fluid articulation of the masses of the Virgin's robe and the solid poses of the figures suggest that the artist was probably aware of trends in Roman sculpture in the early seventeenth century. The figures' faces are not the generalized types associated with late sixteenth-century Italian depictions. Rather, their specificity, the sweetness of expression, and the swept-back masses of drapery folds on the firmly modeled figure of the Virgin again point to early seventeenth-century sculpture in Rome. The name of the sculptor Girolamo Lombardi has been connected to this figine due to the initials in

Image of 62.44 -

62.44 -

Relics were housed in containers known as reliquaries, which often took the shape of the body part of the relic. A bone from a finger might be housed in a hand-shaped reliquary, while a skull might be encased in one resembling the head or bust of the deceased person. These were called "speaking image" reliquaries, because they stood in for or "spoke" for the body part they resembled. This example is in the shape of an arm, a rather widespread form in late medieval and early Renaissance times, examples of which have been recovered in places as distant as modern-day Armenia and Ireland. Because a reliquary was thought to retain the power and holiness of the saintly person, clergy used arm reliq

Image of 62.7 - Dotte, Franz

62.7 - Dotte, Franz

This object is a very elaborate and decorative example of Renaissance metalwork used by wealthy patrons. In the central circle, oval patterns contain allegorical figures of women in a background specific to one of the four seasons. Around the outer rim animals run through simply depicted landscapes. Before the invention of the fork, the purpose of such objects was to clean one's hands after eating. When the fork was invented in the Renaissance, it changed the culture of eating into a more social activity. Aristocratic festivities including food, drink, and entertainment increased: at these feasts, guests could exchange their knowledge of the new humanist learning that emerged in the works

Image of 63.14 -

63.14 -

One of the more popular scenes of the New Testament to be visually represented is the moment of Christ's conception. Known as the Annunciation, the story involves the archangel Gabriel informing the Virgin Mary that she is pregnant with the Son of God. This large stone sculpture depicts the Virgin at the moment the angel appears. He has startled her, as is evident from her right hand placed on her breast as if gasping while her left hand rests on the page of the book she has just been reading. The work would originally have been completely painted. Traces of yellow remain in her hair and red and green-blue on her dress and mantle, respectively. The unfinished condition of the back indicates t

Image of 63.37 - Durer, Albrecht

63.37 - Durer, Albrecht

Desiderius Erasmus, Christian theologian and humanist, witnessed the burgeoning movement that would come to be known as the Protestant Reformation, yet remained committed to reforming the Church from within. Here, he is depicted by printer and fellow theorist Albrecht Durer. Erasmus represented a more moderate position than his contemporary, Martin Luther, a man for whom Durer clearly had sympathy, though unlike Luther the artist never openly broke with the Roman Catholic Church. His religious loyalties notwithstanding, Erasmus gained the respect of both Luther and Durer for his superior learning and commitment to reform. The respect was mutual, for Erasmus was a great admirer of Durer's w

Image of 64.20 -

64.20 -

Private devotional shrine composed of six grisaille enamel panels forming a triptych; the central panel shows The Pieta; above this central rectangular panel hovers the figure of God the Father in a lunette; flanking panels each show a Prophet standing in a niche composed of a lobed base and baldachino; above the Prophets are angels with instuments of Christ's Passion, and the Prophets carry inscribed scrolls: on the left, "sol et Luna obt enebrti Sunt Venite et Descendie" [Joel 2], on the right, "Tollite me et mitte in Mare" [Jonas 2]; presumably the Prophets' drapery is rendered in a deliberate archaic style, to indicate that they come from a time before the central scene [NAW 1/92] Judg